This chapter will cover information on a variety of health issues particular to women’s sexual and reproductive health. This includes: breast health (breast exams and mammography), bone health (bone density and osteoporosis), and reproductive health (cervical screening and menopause). Understanding how these may be different for you after SCI is an important part of keeping yourself healthy.


What Is It?

Women’s health is important through the lifespan. It becomes increasingly important though as women age to undergo regular screening to maintain optimal health. We do recognize that spinal cord injuries can impact how women access these tests.

What’s Different Now?

Spinal cord injury can put you at a greater risk for many health issues as you age.

white coat black art podcast women's health disability podcast episode spinal cord injury

Dr. Brian Goldman interviews women with disabilities on the difficulties of getting adequate sexual and reproductive healthcare. September 2018.


What Can I Do About It?

Understand the screening tests recommended for women to catch health issues early, and the unique issues that women with SCI may have in accessing those tests, or detecting signs of women’s health issues. 


Guidelines for Screenings: When and Why

Cardiovascular disease & metabolic syndrome: 

Persons with SCI are at a greater risk for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Your risk increases with age, level of injury and severity of injury.

Metabolic syndrome: A cluster of conditions that occur together increasing your risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and stroke. Metabolic syndrome is defined as having 3 or more of the following traits:

      • a waistline that measures more than 35 inches (89 centimeters) for women 
      • high triglyceride level (a type of fat in your blood),
      • low “good“ cholesterol, called HDL cholesterol,
      • increased blood pressure, and
      • increased blood sugar.

These can be measured by your doctor. Testing should start earlier for people with spinal cord injury even without obvious signs. Speak with your doctor about when testing should start for you.


Cervical cancer screening

Cervical screening is done to detect the early signs of cervical cancer. The BC Cancer Agency recommendations state that women between the age of 25-69 who are sexually active (even if have received the HPV vaccine) be screened every 3 years.

BC Cancer Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening



Early Identification of Cardiovascular Diseases in People with SCI 


Info About Pap Tests in BC

Breast Exam:

From: http://images.transcontinentalmedia.com/canadianliving/crafts/monthlychart.pdf

The Canadian Cancer Society no longer endorses breast exams for women who are of low risk of breast cancer (ages 40-74); however, they do recommend that ALL women are familiar with their breasts by paying attention to how they look and feel. Any changes can be discussed with your doctor. To familiarize yourself with your breasts, a self-breast exam can still be used as a guide.

Note: should your hand function limit your ability to do this exam for yourself, it could be done by your partner and/or family doctor.


 A mammogram (or mammography) is another test to detect changes in breast tissue to assist in detecting breast cancer earlier. This test can also provide information about your breast tissue density. The BC Cancer Agency recommends mammography screening to begin at age 40. This is to be done every two years unless you have a first degree relative (parent or sibling) who has had breast cancer. Mammography would be done yearly in this case and you would be considered to have higher than average risk.




How To: Breast Self-Exam


Who Should Get a Mammogram?

Bone density:

Spinal cord injury puts you at higher risk for osteoporosis. Please talk to your doctor about when testing bone density might be right for you. 



This is an area that needs more research specific to women with SCI. Some research shows that the onset of menopause is similar for women with SCI and the general population. One study that included the largest comparison study of women with SCI in menopause to the general population indicated that there may be some differences in the way that women with SCI report certain symptoms. 


How to Prepare for These Appointments/What To Know

Mammograms in particular can pose a challenge for women with paralysis as testing clinics often assume you are able to stand independently for a period of time. Not every mammography clinic is prepared for someone who cannot stand, so make sure to ask when you make an appointment and let them know what your mobility is. Here is some important information on Mammogram Accessibility and 10 mammogram questions for wheelchair users to ask of their doctors/clinics to ensure access for their specific needs.


Bone Density After a SCI

My Role

Your role is to be informed. Speak with your health care providers, be aware of your body and any changes in it that concern you and learn where to find help to address it. If you can’t physically get help for breast self-exams, mammograms or cervical cancer screening, learn where the resources are in your community and keep on top of regular care for your sexual and reproductive health. 


Who Can Help Me?

Your Physiatrist (rehab medicine specialist) is the person to talk to about women’s health concerns where they overlap with your spinal cord injury concerns, such as bone density concerns, discussing childbearing and your SCI, or managing your bladder during sex or pregnancy, etc. If you don’t have a Physiatrist in your community you can ask for a referral to GF Strong’s Outpatient SCI Clinic if you live in BC or the Yukon. 

Your Family Physician (also called a GP) is your go-to person to monitor any women’s health concerns you may have related to contraception, reproduction, breast or cervical cancer screenings, bone density, etc. You do not need a referral to see a family physician, but family physicians can also refer you to specialist clinics or physicians to address issues beyond every day management and wellbeing.

Seek help for everyday women’s healthcare you can’t get from your family physician from The Access Clinic at BC Women’s Hospital. This clinic offers women’s health services from contraception consultation and implantation to cancer screenings. You can self-refer or have your family physician refer you. 


Accessing these routine screening assessments are essential for optimal health for any woman. We understand that accessibility can oftentimes make these tests feel like a huge hassle for women with spinal cord injury, but we hope the information provided here can help you prepare and feel proactive in your health.

Women's Health Resources


10 Mammogram Questions for Wheelchair Users - Word of Mouth Mammogram e-Network

Bone Density After SCI - Spinal Cord.com

Breast Self-Examination - Healthlink BC

Cervical Cancer Screening: FAQs - BC Cancer Agency

Cervix - BC Cancer 

Early Identification of Cardiovascular Diseases in People With Spinal Cord Injury - Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehab (PDF)

Guidance: Breast Density - BC Cancer 

It's Not Easy, But You Must Get Your Mammogram - Sheri Denkensohn-Trott, New Mobility magazine

Menopause and Women with SCI - Paraplegia News Online magazine

Monthly Breast Self-Exam - Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation (PDF)

Osteoporosis, Menopause, and Disability - June Price, New Mobility magazine

Questions to Ask Your Doctor Prior to an Appointment - Shepherd Centre (PDF)

SCI Forum Report: Women and SCI - University of Washington

Who Should Get A Mammogram? - BC Cancer

Women with Disabilities Have Sex. Why Are Their Sexual Health Needs Often Ignored? - White Coat, Black Art, CBC


Reproductive Health for Women with SCI video series - UAB School of Medicine

Check out the Video Playlist for this chapter!


Check out the video playlist for this chapter!